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Ellen Meiksins Wood, « Capitalism and Human Emancipation », 1988

Ellen Meiksins Wood , Capitalism and Human Emancipation, New Left Review, vol. I, no. 167, January-February 1988, p. 3-20.

L’article est repris comme chapitre 9 de Wood 1995 (que je lis et commente dans sa réédition Wood 2016). C’est donc en 1988 qu’elle énonce cette thèse, fidèle à Marx, mais « discréditée » selon Amy De’Ath (DeAth 2018:1537) :

… capitalism […] is uniquely indifferent to the social identities of the people it exploits. […] The extraction of surplus value from wage labourers takes place in a relationship between formally free and equal individuals and does not presuppose differences in juridical or political status. In fact, there is a positive tendency in capitalism to undermine such differences, and even to dilute identities like gender […], as capital strives to absorb people into the labour market and to reduce them to interchangeable units of labour abstracted from any specific identity. […] more than that, the development of capitalism has created ideological pressures against such inequalities and differences to a degree with no precedent in pre-capitalist societies.